Taing L., Dang N. (2021) Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Global Health. In: Haring R., Kickbusch I., Ganten D., Moeti M. (eds) Handbook of Global Health. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05325-3_94-1
This chapter provides an overview of key health frameworks that have shaped the water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector since 1958, presents current trends in WASH practice and research, and suggests future policy and research directions. WASH is a fundamental component of global health programming, as its absence results in severe health consequences ranging from biological harm to adverse mental health. While the former has been the focus of WASH research and programming since its nascency, the latter has started gaining traction recently. In addition to transitioning to a more holistic approach, WASH professionals are developing programs across the care continuum, incorporating an equity lens, and scaling services at systemic levels. WASH-associated disease frameworks need to reflect physical, mental, and social well-being outcomes to account for broadened perspectives. Current literature and practice indicate that while WASH programming has become more inclusive in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) era, there is still scope for reaching a diverse range of populations that continue to be overlooked. Greater integration of WASH and health programming is essential to accelerate achievement of the SDGs and leave no one behind.