Zanchetta, A. D., & Coulibaly, P. (2020). Recent Advances in Real-Time Pluvial Flash Flood Forecasting. Water, 12(2), 570.
Recent years have witnessed considerable developments in multiple fields with the potential to enhance our capability of forecasting pluvial flash floods, one of the most costly environmental hazards in terms of both property damage and loss of life. This work provides a summary and description of recent advances related to insights on atmospheric conditions that precede extreme rainfall events, to the development of monitoring systems of relevant hydrometeorological parameters, and to the operational adoption of weather and hydrological models towards the prediction of flash floods. With the exponential increase of available data and computational power, most of the efforts are being directed towards the improvement of multi-source data blending and assimilation techniques, as well as assembling approaches for uncertainty estimation. For urban environments, in which the need for high-resolution simulations demands computationally expensive systems, query-based approaches have been explored for the timely retrieval of pre-simulated flood inundation forecasts. Within the concept of the Internet of Things, the extensive deployment of low-cost sensors opens opportunities from the perspective of denser monitoring capabilities. However, different environmental conditions and uneven distribution of data and resources usually leads to the adoption of site-specific solutions for flash flood forecasting in the context of early warning systems.